Before fighting, he decided to safeguard Mathilde's future in the event of his death by marrying her. Heine continued to write reports for Cotta's Allgemeine Zeitung and, when Cotta died, for his son and successor. One event which really galvanised him was the Damascus Affair in which Jews in Damascus had been subject to blood libel and accused of murdering an old Catholic monk. This led to a wave of anti-Semitic persecution.
The French government, aiming at imperialism in the Middle East and not wanting to offend the Catholic party, had failed to condemn the outrage. On the other hand, the Austrian consul in Damascus had assiduously exposed the blood libel as a fraud. For Heine, this was a reversal of values: reactionary Austria standing up for the Jews while revolutionary France temporised.
Heine responded by dusting off and publishing his unfinished novel about the persecution of Jews in the Middle Ages, Der Rabbi von Bacherach. In German poetry took a more directly political turn when the new Frederick William IV ascended the Prussian throne. Initially it was thought he might be a "popular monarch" and during this honeymoon period of his early reign —42 censorship was relaxed. Heine looked down on these writers on aesthetic grounds — they were bad poets in his opinion — but his verse of the s became more political too.
Heine's mode was satirical attack: against the Kings of Bavaria and Prussia he never for one moment shared the belief that Frederick William IV might be more liberal ; against the political torpor of the German people; and against the greed and cruelty of the ruling class. The most popular of Heine's political poems was his least typical, Die schlesischen Weber "The Silesian Weavers" , based on the uprising of weavers in Peterswaldau in In October , Heine's distant relative and German revolutionary, Karl Marx, and his wife Jenny von Westphalen arrived in Paris after the Prussian government had suppressed Marx's radical newspaper.
The Marx family settled in Rue Vaneau. Marx was an admirer of Heine and his early writings show Heine's influence. In December Heine met the Marxes and got on well with them.
Ultimately Heine's ideas of revolution through sensual emancipation and Marx's scientific socialism were incompatible, but both writers shared the same negativity and lack of faith in the bourgeoisie. On the other hand, he did not share Marx's faith in the industrial proletariat and remained on the fringes of socialist circles. Heine could not be expelled from the country because he had the right of residence in France, having been born under French occupation. He believed its radicalism and materialism would destroy much of the European culture that he loved and admired.
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In the French edition of "Lutetia" Heine wrote, one year before he died: "This confession, that the future belongs to the Communists, I made with an undertone of the greatest fear and sorrow and, oh! Indeed, with fear and terror I imagine the time, when those dark iconoclasts come to power: with their raw fists they will batter all marble images of my beloved world of art, they will ruin all those fantastic anecdotes that the poets loved so much, they will chop down my Laurel forests and plant potatoes and, oh!
In my chest there are two voices in their favour which cannot be silenced The second of the two compelling voices, of which I am talking, is even more powerful than the first, because it is the voice of hatred, the hatred I dedicate to this common enemy that constitutes the most distinctive contrast to communism and that will oppose the angry giant already at the first instance — I am talking about the party of the so-called advocates of nationality in Germany, about those false patriots whose love for the fatherland only exists in the shape of imbecile distaste of foreign countries and neighbouring peoples and who daily pour their bile especially on France".
In October—December Heine made a journey to Hamburg to see his aged mother and to patch things up with Campe with whom he had had a quarrel. He was reconciled with the publisher who agreed to provide Mathilde with an annuity for the rest of her life after Heine's death. Heine repeated the trip with his wife in July—October to see Uncle Salomon, but this time things did not go so well. It was the last time Heine would ever leave France.
The former is based on his journey to Germany in late and outdoes the radical poets in its satirical attacks on the political situation in the country. It tells the story of the hunt for a runaway bear, Atta Troll, who symbolises many of the attitudes Heine despised, including a simple-minded egalitarianism and a religious view which makes God in the believer's image Atta Troll conceives God as an enormous, heavenly polar bear.
Atta Troll's cubs embody the nationalistic views Heine loathed. Atta Troll was not published until , but Deutschland appeared in as part of a collection Neue Gedichte "New Poems" , which gathered all the verse Heine had written since This put a stop to Heine's annual subsidy of 4, francs. Salomon left Heine and his brothers 8, francs each in his will.
Heine's cousin Carl, the inheritor of Salomon's business, offered to pay him 2, francs a year at his discretion. Heine was furious; he had expected much more from the will and his campaign to make Carl revise its terms occupied him for the next two years.
In , Heine wrote series of musical feuilletons over several different music seasons discussing the music of the day. His review of the musical season of , written in Paris on April 25, , is his first reference to Lisztomania, the intense fan frenzy directed toward Franz Liszt during his performances. However, Heine was not always honorable in his musical criticism. In April he wrote to Liszt suggesting that he might like to look at a newspaper review he had written of Liszt's performance before his concert; he indicated that it contained comments Liszt would not like.
Liszt took this as an attempt to extort money for a positive review and did not meet Heine.
Heine's review subsequently appeared on April 25 in Musikalische Berichte aus Paris and attributed Liszt's success to lavish expenditures on bouquets and to the wild behaviour of his hysterical female "fans. Liszt was not the only musician to be blackmailed by Heine for the nonpayment of "appreciation money. In May , Heine, who had not been well, suddenly fell paralyzed and had to be confined to bed.
He would not leave what he called his "mattress-grave" Matratzengruft until his death eight years later.
He also experienced difficulties with his eyes. He was sceptical about the Frankfurt Assembly and continued to attack the King of Prussia. When the revolution collapsed, Heine resumed his oppositional stance. At first he had some hope Louis Napoleon might be a good leader in France but he soon began to share the opinion of Marx towards him as the new emperor began to crack down on liberalism and socialism. In fact, he had never claimed to be an atheist. Nevertheless, he remained sceptical of organised religion. He continued to work from his sickbed: on the collections of poems Romanzero and Gedichte und , on the journalism collected in Lutezia , and on his unfinished memoirs.
His tomb was designed by Danish sculptor Louis Hasselriis. It includes Heine's poem Where? German: Wo? His wife Mathilde survived him, dying in The couple had no children. Within the pantheon of the "Jewish cultural intelligentsia" chosen for anti-Semitic demonization, perhaps nobody was the recipient of more National Socialist vitriol than Heinrich Heine. Many composers have set Heine's works to music. Frank van der Stucken composed a "symphonic prologue" to the same play.
I'd read his journals, where he tells of Chopin, going for a drive, the poet Heine dropping in, a refugee from Germany. Nothing had changed in the street. And I saw Heine up at the corner, walking toward me. He almost reached me. I had this intense feeling for him, you know, the Jewish exile. I saw him.
In the s, amidst a flowering of affection for Heine leading up to the centennial of his birth, plans were made to honor Heine with a memorial; these were strongly supported by one of Heine's greatest admirers, Elisabeth of Bavaria, Empress of Austria. The empress commissioned a statue from the sculptor Louis Hasselriis.
While at first the plan met with enthusiasm, the concept was gradually bogged down in anti-Semitic, nationalist, and religious criticism; by the time the fountain was finished, there was no place to put it. Through the intervention of German American activists, the memorial was ultimately transplanted into the Bronx, New York City in Philadelphia already in were printed the complete edition of Heine's works in German language.
Today the city honours its poet with a boulevard Heinrich-Heine-Allee and a modern monument. A Heine statue, originally located near Empress Elisabeth's palace in Corfu, was later rejected by Hamburg, but eventually found a home in Toulon.
In Israel, the attitude to Heine has long been the subject of debate between secularists, who number him among the most prominent figures of Jewish history, and the religious who consider his conversion to Christianity to be an unforgivable act of betrayal. Due to such debates, the city of Tel-Aviv delayed naming a street for Heine, and the street finally chosen to bear his name is located in a rather desolate industrial zone rather than in the vicinity of Tel-Aviv University, suggested by some public figures as the appropriate location.
Since then, a street in the Yemin Moshe neighborhood of Jerusalem  and, in Haifa, a street with a beautiful square and a community center have been named after Heine. A Heine Appreciation Society is active in Israel, led by prominent political figures from both the left and right camps. His quote about burning books is prominently displayed in the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum in Jerusalem. Plaque at the Nazi book burning memorial on Bebelplatz in Berlin, Germany with a quote from Heinrich Heine's play Almansor play, written — This is a faithful photographic reproduction of a two-dimensional, public domain work of art.
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